Power Wheelchairs and Residential Fire Safety
(Motorized Wheelchairs and Scooters In Shared Housing)
by the National Institute for Rehabilitation Engineering
Some residence managers contemplate barring the use or storage of
electrically powered mobility aids in their buildings because of concerns
they may cause fires. This paper explains how motorized wheelchairs and
scooters can be safely used and stored indoors.
The National Institute for Rehabilitation Engineering (NIRE) is a non-profit
organization which operated clinics to design, dispense and fit customized
assistive equipment, with user training, from 1967 through 1996. Working
with disabled people and their own doctors and therapists, these NIRE
clinics assisted hundreds of people having severe and permanent motor
impairments. The N.I.R.E. pioneered the development and use of personalized
power wheelchairs (some steered and controlled with inertial guidance
systems or with breath controls, by people unable to use hand controls);
these included indoor, outdoor, indoor-outdoor models, and some designs
capable of climbing curbs or stairs. During these years, a great deal
was learned concerning USER SAFETY and PUBLIC SAFETY. This paper explains
many safety questions and issues. The paper is intended to be of assistance
to power wheelchair users, new and old. PERMISSION is herewith granted
for the free copying and distribution of this © paper, provided all
copies are complete and unaltered and The NIRE is fully credited as the
This Paper is intended for building managers - and for people
using, or planning to use, power wheelchairs or motorized scooters in
multiple-unit housing. In this paper, we discuss "Fire Prevention
and Resident Safety in Group or Public Housing", as related to the
use and storage of power wheelchair mobility aids. This is an important
safety issue for resident power wheelchair users, for all residents, and
for building managers. The truth is that light fixtures, televisions,
computers and other common household appliances cause many more fires
than do electrically powered mobility aids.
Fire-Safety and Prevention Concerns
This Institute has received numerous requests for residential safety
information concerning: (a) the prevention of interior fires caused by
the presence or use electric wheelchairs and scooters; and (b) how to
best evacuate people in power wheelchairs when there is a fire. This paper
answers these questions as they can best be answered. Please note that
the safety of sleeping residents depends, not only on the safety of electric
mobility equipment, but also on the safety of all other appliances and
equipment used or stored in the premises.
Important Safety Measures for residential facilities and their
- Prohibit, limit use of, or provide controls over flammables
in occupied buildings, with or without powered mobility aids. Especially
dangerous and to be avoided, or to be well-controlled, are: natural
gas, propane gas, and flammable liquids such as kerosene, gasoline,
alcohol and cleaning fluids. Also, flammable solids such as pads, pillows,
mattresses and curtains. Prohibit indoor use or storage of propane or
gasoline powered devices such as lawn mowers, golf carts, scooters,
- Be certain all electrical appliances are isolated from flammable
fumes and fluids. This must include all light fixtures, television
sets, radio receivers, telephones, personal computers, hair dryers,
- Power wheelchairs and scooters can be limited to the safer types.
They should be electrically powered and have these characteristics,
for maximum safety:
- Use sealed gel type rechargeable batteries. (NO liquid electrolyte).
- Use no-spark electronically controlled battery charger with safety
cables and plugs.
- Use wheelchair motors that are ac brushless induction motors. Avoid
all brush-type motors, whether ac or dc powered, because the brushes
- The wheelchair controller should NOT have ON-OFF switches (which
spark) unless they are sealed and fireproof. It should have continuously
variable electronic speed & power controls.
- Every wheelchair and scooter in a building should have fire-retardant
cushions and upholstery. Likewise, all beds, sofas, upholstered furniture,
cushion, pillows, carpets, and curtains should be of fire-retardant
- Residents and visitors should be forbidden to smoke in the buildings.
- All areas should be equipped with approved fire- and smoke- detectors.
They should also have natural gas and carbon monoxide detectors. All
areas should have audible fire alarm warning systems and, if deaf people
are resident, visual and vibratory alarm signals for the deaf people.
- All rooms, apartments, offices, closets, storage areas, waste storage,
utility, and laundry areas should be subjected to regularly scheduled
(and to occasional surprise) safety inspections, by qualified inspectors.
- Oxygen Users may have in their living quarters, either of two
types of breathing aids.
- One type, often used by (normally mobile) people with COPD
or other breathing disorders, is a room-air oxygen concentration
machine. An apartment with such a machine is at increased risk
for fire. The apartment should NOT have a gas heater or a gas
stove because the atmosphere is much more explosive with the concentrator
than without. Also, cigarettes and open flames should be avoided in
such an apartment.
- The other type oxygen device involves use of a thin plastic tube
in a person's nose, to deliver the needed oxygen. This nasal tube
does NOT normally release oxygen into the apartment and should be
completely safe for everyone.
- Powered Ventilators - or Respirators - may, when needed for
life support, be in the bedroom and possibly on a powered wheelchair. In the
residence, they are usually plugged into an outlet and ac-powered. On a wheelchair,
they are battery powered. These are life-support devices that must be kept
running and must be kept with the user, no matter what the emergency. Housing
management and maintenance personnel should be aware of all residents using
these devices; should have approved power backup arrangements; should evacuate
these disabled people first; and should arrange for ambulances or EMT personnel
to remove these residents and their ventilators quickly and efficiently when
there is an evacuation. Note: Most of these devices will not start fires
because they are designed to be used in oxygen-enriched atmospheres.
Evacuation Methods for power wheelchair users (if elevators not working)
- Six steps or fewer: It may be possible for one or two strong
men to manually roll an occupied power wheelchair down the steps. This
may be safest with one strong man on top, and one below.
- More than six steps, but fewer than 15: The disabled person
may be taken down either in a lightweight manual wheelchair or on a
stretcher. The power wheelchair may then be manually carried down, unoccupied.
- 16 steps or more: Leave the power wheelchair - and carry the
disabled person down the stairs on a stretcher or in a light-weight
- Assuming elevators are inoperative, the facilities should have
outside ramp escape routes that interface with 1st, 2nd and 3rd floor
emergency exits. NOTE: This may be easier to implement for buildings
on hilly terrain (than for buildings on flat, level terrain.)
Ensuring Fire-Safe Electrically Powered Mobility Aids
(Powered Wheelchairs and Scooters ... and their Battery Chargers)
Equipment dealers and manufacturers who sell these types of mobility devices
know which models are safest with regard to residential fire potentials, primary
and secondary. These manufacturers and vendors know or should know about motors
with and without brushes and non-sparking variable power & speed controls.
It is wise for all buyers of electric mobility aids to choose models that,
first, are of the safest design and construction. From these models, they can
then select specific configurations compatible with their physical and functional
needs. These priorities are wise, even for a person living in his own single-family
home. As for group living, whether in apartment buildings or in assisted living
facilities, the electrically powered mobility aids must be fire-safe for the
well-being of all residents of and visitors to the building. Thus, the building's
management can and should be actively involved in establishing and maintaining
the best possible fire prevention conditions. Because this goes well beyond
the wheelchairs and scooters (as discussed in this paper), the services of an
architect or safety engineer may be very helpful for planning and for periodic
For wheelchair users, every building should have emergency evacuation
plans and there should be periodic evacuation tests or training drills.
These will ensure preparedness for when a real emergency occurs.
Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs exist but are rarely used. If a disabled
resident happens to own and use a stair-climbing wheelchair, then special
precautions must be taken during an emergency evacuation - if it is to
be used at all. It is preferable to NOT use it because of the stress
conditions, haste, and the presence of so many other people. If it is
to be used to descend stairs, then it should be used for one flight of
stairs - or less. Never for more. Even then, it should be used only by
an experienced user; only with other people kept away for their own safety
(should it fall); and only after the steps are visually inspected and
found to be free of debris. Of course, if visibility (of the steps) is
poor due to power failure, smoke or other factors, use of a stair-climbing/descending
wheelchair should not even be considered.
Some Useful Additional Information - for wheelchair user evacuations
- with or without powered mobility-device removals:
A Basic Danger Of Stair-Climbing or Descent in a wheelchair
is the fact that, if an occupied stair-climbing wheelchair falls down
a flight of stairs (it could fall from near the top of a 32-step stairway)
then serious injury or death to the user is the likely. Others in the
area may also be injured or killed by such a fall.
Age and Health Factors can be very significant to safety, both
in preventing - and in surviving accidents. Examples: (1) A young paraplegic
with normal upper body functions and strength. This fast moving person,
with good eyesight, may well maneuver fast and vigorously enough to prevent
an accident. Even if his wheelchair turns over or falls down a flight
of stairs, the person has the highest chance of surviving with minimal
injuries. Or, (2) an elderly paraplegic, or a wheelchair user of any age
with upper body weakness and impaired movement abilities, is less likely
to prevent an accident or fall at the last moment and is much more likely
to suffer serious injuries or death in a fall, collision or accident.
Users of Power Wheelchairs - Disability Categories and Safety Risks
as summarized below, do not include the added hazards of navigating a
power wheelchair with poor vision or with susceptibility to fainting or
unexpected seizures. It is assumed that all wheelchair users are strapped
in for safety. Two straps should be used: one, down, lap to chair - and
the other higher up, securing the upper body to the backrest of the wheelchair.
The wheelchair user must be secured both ways for maximum safety.
- Paraplegics - Healthy, Fit & Active are typically the
safest users of manual, power-assisted, and fully powered wheelchairs.
- Amputees - Missing Legs and/or Arms but with active upper
bodies are usually safe users of power wheelchairs, depending
on the type of control devices used. If planned and implemented properly,
then Low Risk.
- People with Weak or Poorly Controlled Upper Bodies using standard
joystick to reliably control power wheelchairs. This category
may include some people with Cerebral Palsy, some with Multiple Sclerosis,
some with Parkinson Disease, and people with many other conditions.
Some of these conditions may cause impaired eyesight, slowed reflexes
and/or impaired judgment. All should be fully screened for such functional
deficits just as for automobile driving safety. Moderate Risk.
- People with Little or No Upper Body Movement, using special
quad controls such as mouth joystick, puff & sip breath
control, or gyroscopic (inertial) wheelchair controls. High Risk.
- Paralyzed Small People - Children and "very small"
Adults in special seats or carriers often need a power
wheelchair, most of all when significantly paralyzed. Depending on
mechanical implementations, individual conditions, and personalized
mobility and safety training, these people are at High Risk.
Safety - Information ... re Use of Power Wheelchairs (by users or
- Mechanical Brakes that can be set or released by the wheelchair
user are necessary safety items - an absolute "must" for outdoor
wheelchair use. Some chairs have mechanical brakes that are hand-operated
by a user with normal functioning of both hands - but not by users with
impaired hands. Other chairs have no mechanical brakes but use "dynamic
braking." This helps slow the chair to a rapid stop when powered
and moving. It does NOT lock the wheels to prevent rolling down a
steep incline. Buyers of power wheelchairs should always insist that
the vendor includes mechanical brakes that the user can operate.
They must be operable when moving, to brake, stop and lock the chair.
Also, it must be possible for the wheelchair user to manually lock or
to release the mechanical brakes ... when stopped. For quadriplegics
unable to move a lever, it is feasible to use standard mechanical brakes
that are set, locked and unlocked by small user-controllable electric
- Front-Wheel Configurations are very important for user safety.
Power wheelchairs for outdoor use should always have powered large wheels
in front; never free-swinging casters. Indoor wheelchairs with front
casters are safe for outdoor use only on flat, level surfaces. They
are at risk on sidewalks because of slab variations and irregularities,
and totally unsafe on grass and soil. Wheelchairs with front casters
are designed for indoor use because they offer better indoor maneuverability.
- User Arm-Stabilization should be considered for the wheelchair
user with impaired arm and hand function. An orthotic elbow or forearm
support can be installed on the wheelchair to support the hand used
to operate the wheelchair's controls. This support can provide vital
stabilization for the hand that steers and controls the power wheelchair.
- Safety Shut-Off and Braking Controls should be provided for
power wheelchair users who use mouth, breath, or other than hand controls.
The user with normal use of one hand can steer the power chairs with
the control stick, can operate auxiliary power control switches and
can apply or release mechanical brakes. Quadriplegics should have special
devices installed immediately to shut the power off and apply the brakes,
if special sensors detect the wheelchair moving unsafely or out of control.
The seller of the wheelchair and controls should include these safety
features, which should be tested with the user and be approved by an
- Traversing Inclines - Always steer UP or DOWN an incline. NEVER
travel across an incline ... because the wheelchair is likely to
fall over sideways - if you do. For wheelchairs with casters in front,
avoid areas in the pavement or path that tilt to one side to
avoid having the wheelchair roll off the path and over an embankment.
- Avoiding Ground Obstacles to Wheels ... such as stones, cracks,
curbs, etc. which must be seen and avoided by the wheelchair user to
prevent sudden deflection of the chair to one side, off the path.
- Batteries should be Fully Charged before leaving home. It is
dangerous to be stranded outdoors in a power wheelchair with dead batteries.
Periodically, the batteries should be checked by a technician for physical
condition, cable connections and remaining charge capacities.
- Power Wheelchair Users often have a Cell Phone ... for safety.
People with impaired hand dexterity, unable to operate a standard cell
phone, can have a cell phone attached to the wheelchair that is modified
for use by even a quadriplegic. If you cannot afford monthly cell phone
fees, then get a "911-only" cell phone for which there are
no monthly charges. Cell phones should be wired to work from both internal
battery and wheelchair battery. Electrical noise filters may be needed
to suppress motor noise. Wiring should be "fire-safe".
- Powered Ventilator Users should have a separate rechargeable
battery on the wheelchair, for the ventilator. This assures that the
ventilator will not fail even if the power wheelchair battery is exhausted.
There should be an audible alarm device and the chair should have a
cell phone or a 911 phone.
- Avoid Rain and Snow which are especially hazardous to power
wheelchair users, and to the expensive equipment. Try to stay out of
falling rain or snow; try to stay off wet, slippery surfaces coated
with rain or snow. If you must travel in rain or snow, use a wheelchair
- When Being Transported in a Wheelchair Van always make certain
that: (a) the wheels of the wheelchair are locked to the floor of the
van; (b) that the wheelchair undercarriage or seat is tightly strapped
down to the floor. (c) that the user is strapped DOWN to the seat -
and BACK , from the chest to the seat's back structure. Countless wheelchair
users have been thrown forward, out of their chairs, into the windshield
and to their deaths because they did not follow these precautions. These
must apply whether the van is privately owned, rented or a public for-hire
- Outdoor Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs. Outdoor steps are usually
wider, deeper and shallower than inside steps, and often of shorter
height. Some outdoor power wheelchairs with large, powered wheels in
front, are designed to safely carry the user up or down flights of outdoor
steps, as found in front of courthouses or public buildings. These
chairs cannot safely carry a person up or down the types of stairs found
indoors, in homes, offices and public buildings. Never try on indoor
- Indoor Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs are the most dangerous to use
because indoor steps are steep, narrow, high and have short depths as
compared with outdoor steps. Most indoor stairways are not designed
to support heavy weight in one area and can crack or break without warning.
Also, indoor steps often have poor visibility so that unseen clutter,
wet spots and damaged areas can cause the heavy power wheelchair to
slip, slide, lose its grip on the stairs, and crash to the bottom injuring
or killing the user. CAUTION: Always have an able-bodied wheelchair
technician or mobility trainer who is familiar with the stair-climber,
test climb and descend a particular flight of indoor stairs before the
wheelchair user tries it. Even then, the user should climb and then
descend the same stairway two or three times in the presence of the
technician or trainer. CAUTION: Stair-climbing wheelchairs may be
unsafe in a private home because they are heavy. With batteries,
such a wheelchair may weigh about 400 lbs. Add 200 lbs. for the user
and the total weight can equal 600 lbs. This is enough weight to crack,
break or dislodge one or more steps, causing the wheelchair and user
to fall down the entire flight of stairs.
- Periodic Preventive Maintenance is absolutely necessary to
maintain the safety of any power wheelchair, stair-climbing or not.
We recommend daily minor, and weekly major inspections by the user.
We also recommend a professional inspection at least once every 3 months
for most users, and as often as once a month for very active and/or
severely disabled users. If tires are air-inflated, air pressure should
be checked before each day's use. Solid tires should be visually inspected
for breaks. For Safety, legal and financial reasons, it is recommended
that all power wheelchair service be provided by the seller, by the
manufacturer or by a local mechanic who is designated as a "manufacturer's
For additional information or free technical support,
please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
or contact us by regular mail or telephone:
The National Institute for Rehabilitation Engineering
Box 1088 Hewitt, NJ 07421 Tel. (800) 736-2216.
Copyright 2004 by The National Institute for Rehabilitation
(The N.I.R.E. is an IRS 501(c)3 organization helping people with disabilities)
This paper may be freely copied and freely distributed provided
all copies are complete and unaltered.